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 SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER

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Nombre de messages : 3908
Age : 58
Localisation : LYON
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Date d'inscription : 29/06/2006

MessageSujet: SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER   Lun 22 Aoû - 20:49

Assembly of a Regiment dismounted.

When a regiment is to turn out under arms on foot, "to arms" will be sounded; at this signal, the men are formed and inspected, and the reports are made as is prescribed.

Formation of the Escort of the Standard. (Pl. 2, fig. A)

The squadrons of a regiment, commencing with the first, furnish in turn the escort of the standard.
The Captain commanding and the 2d Captain alternate in the command of this escort.
It is composed of two platoons. Each squadron, successively, furnishes first its two first platoons, and then its two last.
The 1st platoon of the escort furnishes the advanced guard composed of two men in front with the carbine advanced or pistol raised (according to the corps;) a Corporal and four men with drawn sabres (or lances at a carry) march 10 paces from them.
The Trumpeters, formed by fours and conducted by the Adjutant, march 10 paces from the four men who precede.
The rest of the platoon, with drawn sabres, (or lances at a carry,) having the Lieutenant at its head, marches by fours 10 paces from the Trumpeters.
The standard-bearer follows immediately after between two Sergeants.
The 2d platoon, with drawn sabres, (or lances ­ at a carry,) having the 2d Lieutenant at its head, follows the standard-bearer, marches by fours, and furnishes the rear guard, composed of a, Corporal and two men, who march with drawn sabres (or lances at a carry,) 10 paces in rear of the 2d platoon.
Two other men, with the carbine advanced or pistol raised, (according to the corps,) march 10 paces in rear.
The Captain marches 4 paces from the left flank Opposite to the standard-bearer.
This detachment having arrived where the standard is kept, without sounding the trumpets, is there formed into line. The Adjutant dismounts, takes the standard, and gives it to the standard-bearer.

Reception of the Standard.

As soon as the standard appears, the Captain orders the sabres to be presented; the trumpets sound to the standard.
After this signal has been twice repeated, the Captain orders the sabres to be carried, and breaks in the same order in which he came; the trumpets sound the march.
When the standard arrives the Colonel orders the sabres to be drawn; the trumpets cease to sound, and, with the escort, take their place in line, passing behind the regiment.
The standard-bearer, accompanied by the two Sergeants, moves towards the centre of the regiment, parallel to the front, and halts before the Colonel, fronting the regiment; the Colonel then orders, the sabres to be presented, and the trumpets to sound to the standard; he salutes with the sabre. The standard-bearer then takes his place in line and the Colonel orders the sabres to be carried.

The field officers salute with the sabre when the standard passes before them. The standard receives the same honors on its departure as on its arrival, and it is escorted to the Colonel's quarters in the order prescribed above. On foot, the escort is composed in the same manner, and the standard receives the same honors.
Salute with the Standard.

When the standard is to pay honors, the standard-bearer salutes in the following manner, in two times
1. At 4 paces from the person who is to be saluted, lower the lance gently to the front, bending as near to the horizontal line as possible.
2. Raise the lance gently when the person saluted has passed 4 paces.

Salute with the Sabre.

When the superior and other officers are to salute, whether on horseback or on foot, at a halt or marching they do it in four times.
1. At 4 paces from the person to be saluted, raise the sabre perpendicularly, the point upwards, the edge to the left, the hand opposite to and one foot from the right shoulder, the elbow 6 inches from the body.
2. Lower the blade, extending the arm to its full length, the hand in quarte, until the point of the sabre is near the foot.
3. Raise the sabre quickly, the point upwards, as in the first time, after the person saluted has passed 4 paces.
4. Carry the sabre to the shoulder.



BASIS OF INSTRUCTION

ARTICLE SECOND.

FORMATION OF A REGIMENT OF FIVE SQUADRONS IN COLUMN.

Order in Column by twos or by fours.

(Pl. 2, fig. B.) In this order, the squadrons preserve an interval of 12 paces (12 yards) between each other equal to their interval in line.

This distance measured from the croups of the horses of the last files of one squadron, to the heads of the horses of the first files of the next squadron.

The Colonel marches at the centre of the regiment, on the side of the guides, 25 paces from the flank of the column, having behind him a chief bugler. He moves wherever his presence may be necessary.

The Lieutenant‑Colonel on the side of the guides, 12 paces from the flank of the column; be marches habitually on a line with the Lieutenant commanding the 1st platoon of the 1st squadron.

The Major marches in the direction of the Lieutenant-Colonel, and on a line with the particular guide of the left of the 5th squadron.

The Adjutant marches on the side of the guides, 2 paces from the flank and on a line with the first files of the column, to observe the guides and the direction of the march.

The Sergeant‑Major marches on the side of the guides, 2 paces from the flank of the column, and on a line with the particular guide of the left of 5th squadron; if the left is in front, he executes on the side of the guides what is prescribed

For the Adjutant when the right is in front.

The Quartermaster‑Sergeant having the general guide of the right behind him, marches on the side opposite to the guides, two paces from the flank, and on a line with the first files of the column.

The Captains commanding march on the side of the guides, and 4 paces from the flank and abreast of the centre of their squadrons.

The second Captains march on the side opposite to the guides, 4 pace from the flank, and abreast of the centre of their squadrons.

The 1st Lieutenant of each squadron marches at the head of the 1st platoon, one pace in advance of the first files, having the particular guide of the right on his right.

The chiefs of the other platoons march on the side of the guides, one pace from the flank of the column, and abreast of their first files; the file-closers march on the side opposite to the guides, one pace from the flank, and on a line with the centre of their platoons.

They all march in a similar manner on the flanks of the column when the left is in front; and, in this case, it is the junior 1st Lieutenant who marches in the column at the head of the 4th platoon of each squadron.

The particular guide, who in line is posted on the left of the squadron, marches behind the last files of the squadron; when the column is left in front, he takes post on the left of the officer commanding the 4th platoon, one pace in front of the left file.

When the nature of the ground obliges the offi­cers and file‑closers to enter the column, the movement is made successively; the superior officers, the Captains commanding, and the chiefs of platoons, place themselves at the head; the second Captains, and the file‑closers, in rear of their re­spective troops.

The Major marches in rear of the column; and also the Sergeant‑Major.

The primitive order is resumed as soon as the nature of the ground will permit.



Order in column of Platoons.

(Pl. 3, fig. A.) In this order, the distance from one platoon to another, measured from the men of one front rank to those of another front rank, is equal to the front of a platoon; that is to say, it is 12 paces if the platoons are of twelve files. Subtracting the depth of two ranks, which is 6 paces, there remains 6 paces from the croup of the horses of the rear rank of one platoon to the heads of the horses of the front rank of the next platoon, a distance which is equal to half of the front of a platoon.

The Colonel marches at the centre of the regiment, on the side of the guides, 25 paces from the flank of the column, having behind him a chief bugler; be moves wherever his presence may be required.

The Lieutenant‑Colonel marches habitually on the side of the guides, 12 paces from the flank of the column, and on a line with the Lieutenant commanding the 1st platoon of the 1st squadron.

The Major marches in the direction of the Lieutenant‑Colonel, and habitually abreast of the file-closers of the last platoon of the column.

The Adjutant marches behind the left file of the 1st platoon, to direct the guide of the column; he should occasionally place himself in front of this file, to satisfy himself that the guides of each platoon preserve the same direction.

The Sergeant‑Major marches on the side of the guides, 2 paces from the flank of the column, and abreast of the file‑closers of the 4th platoon of the 5th squadron; and, if the left is in front, he executes on the side of the guides that which is prescribed for the Adjutant when the right is in front.

The Quartermaster‑Sergeant having the general guide of the right behind him, marches on the side opposite to the guides, 2 paces from the flank of the column, and on a line with the front rank of the 1st platoon.

The Captains commanding march on the side of the guides, four paces from the flank of the column, and habitually abreast of the centre of their squadrons.

The second Captains march on the side opposite to the guides, 4 paces from the flank of the column, and abreast of the centre of their squadrons.

The 1st and 2d Lieutenants march at the centre of their platoons, one pace from the front rank; those who command the platoons at the head of squadrons preserve, besides their distance, the ground necessary to enable each squadron, in wheeling into line, to maintain its interval.

The Sergeants, who are file‑closers, march on the side opposite to the guides, behind the third file of their platoons.

When the column marches right in front, the particular guide of the right of each squadron marches on the right of the 1st platoon; and the particular guide of the left places himself as file-closer behind the 2d file from the left of the 4th platoon.

The post of these Sergeants is the reverse when the left is in front.

(PI. 3, fig. B.) The squadron being composed of 64 files, when it is broken into sections, the 1st Lieutenant of each squadron marches at the head of the 1st section of the 1st platoon; the chiefs of the other platoons remain on the side of the guides, one pace from and on a line with the front rank of their 1st section.

The file‑closers, who command the 2d sections, march on the side opposite to the guides, one pace from and on a line with the front rank.

The posts of the commandants of sections is the reverse when the left is in front.



Order in column of Divisions.

(Pl. 3, fig. C.) The Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel, Major, and Adjutant, are posted as in the column of platoons.

It is the same for the Captains commanding, and the second Captains.

The senior 1st Lieutenant commands the 1st division, the other 1st Lieutenant the 2d; they remain, however, at the centre of their platoons.

All the other officers and Sergeants of each division are posted as prescribed in the order in column of platoons, the file‑closers remaining in their places, on whatsoever side the guide may be.



Order in close column.

(Pl. 4.) In this order, the distance from one squadron to another, which is 12 paces, (12 yards,) is measured from the croup of the horses of the rear rank of one squadron, to the heads of the horses of the front rank of the next squadron.

The Colonel, Lieutenant‑ Colonel, and Major, are posted as in columns of platoons.

The Adjutant marches behind the left guide of the 1st squadron, on the alignment of the file-closers, to superintend the direction of the march.

The Sergeant‑Major is posted as in column of platoons, and, when the left is in front, he performs the same duties as the Adjutant when the right is in front.

The Quartermaster‑Sergeant marches on the side opposite to the guides, as in column of platoons.

The particular guide of the left wing of the 1st squadron moves to the front on the alignment of the officers; he is replaced by the Sergeant file-closer of the 4th platoon. If the left is in front, the particular guide of the right of the 5th squadron places himself on the alignment of the officers to serve as guide: he is replaced by the Sergeant file‑closer of the 1st platoon.

All the officers of the squadron and the file-closers remain posted as in order of battle, except the Captains commanding, who march on the side of the guides, 4 paces from the flank, and on a line with the officers of their squadrons.



Compliments by Cavalry Under Review.

The regiment being in line, the Captains one pace in advance of the centre of their companies, the Lieutenants commanding platoons one pace in­ advance of the centre of their platoons, the Co­lonel commands:

1. Attention.

2. Prepare for review.

3. Rear rank, open order.

4. MARCH.

5‑ Right‑DRESS.

6. FRONT.

At the fourth command, the ranks are opened after the principles prescribed No. 436, all the of­ficers in the rank of the file‑closers advancing to the front, and placing themselves on the line of officers opposite to the positions they before occupied. The staff officers place themselves on the right of the rank of company officers, according to their relative rank, one pace from each other. The Quartermaster‑Sergeant and the Sergeant-Major, are on the right, of the front rank of the regiment.

The Colonel, Lieutenant‑Colonel, Major, and Adjutant, are posted as in order of battle.

The music is formed at the same time in one rank on the right of the regiment, and ten paces from it.

After the ranks are opened, the Colonel commands:

1. Attention.

2. DRAW‑SABRE.

In this parade order, the regiment awaits the approach of the personage who is to review it; for whose guide a camp‑color will have been placed eighty or one hundred and fifty paces in front of the centre, according to the extent of the line, and the plain in front of it.

When the reviewing personage is midway between the camp‑color and the Colonel, the latter turns his horse to the right‑about on his ground and commands:

1. Attention.

2. Present‑SABRE.

And resumes immediately his proper front. The officers all salute.

When the reviewing personage, who has halted until the proper compliments are paid, advances, the Colonel brings his sabre to a carry, turns about as before to the line, and commands:

1. Attention.

2. Carry-SABRE.

When the whole line remains perfectly steady, except the Colonel, who resumes his proper front.

The reviewing personage now turns of to the right of the regiment, passes thence, in front of all the Officers to the left around the left, and behind the rank of file‑closers, to the right again. While he is passing around the regiment no matter what his rank, the music will play; and when he turns off to take his station near the camp-color, the music will cease.

When the music ceases the Colonel turns about and commands:

1. Attention.

2. Rear rank, close order.

3. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, all the officers from the rank of file‑closers return to their position in that rank.

The reviewing personage having taken a position near the camp‑color, previously placed at a proper distance, the Colonel causes the regiment to break into column of companies right or left, in front, and commands:

Pass in review.

At this command the band and trumpeters repair to the head of the regimental column, 6 paces in front of the Colonel. The Quartermaster‑Sergeant places himself 10 paces in front of the Colonel, 2 paces from the flank opposite to the guides.

The Quartermaster, Surgeon, and Assistant Surgeon, are in one rank, in the order in which they are named, 4 paces in rear of the last division.

The Colonel is 6 paces in front of the Captain of the leading company.

The Lieutenant‑Colonel on a line with the first company, 6 paces from the flank opposite to the guide.

The Major on a line with the last company, 6 paces from the side opposite to the guide.

The Adjutant on a line with the second company, 6 paces from the flank opposite to the guide.

The Sergeant‑Major on a line with the company next to the rear, 6 paces from the flank opposite to the guide.

Captains, 2 paces in advance of the centre of their companies.

Chiefs of platoons, 2 paces in advance of the centre of their platoons.

Officers of the rank of file‑closers, on the side opposite to the guide, on a line with the chiefs of platoons.

The column is then put in march, at a walk, with the guide on the side next to the reviewing personage.

The column first passes at a walk, and afterwards, if required, at a trot.

The regiments take, in marching, intervals of about 40 paces from each other.

When the head of the column arrives within 50 paces of the reviewing personage, the music commences to play.

The band having passed, the chief musician causes it to wheel out of the column and take position opposite to the reviewing personage; the music continues to play, until the last company has passed, when it ceases, and follows in the rear.

Passing at a walk, the Colonel and all the officers salute with the sabre, as they successively arrive within six paces of the reviewing personage, turning the heads towards him.

The standard does not salute, except to the President or Vice‑President of the United States, Governors of States, Heads of Departments, or the Commander‑in‑Chief; when the trumpets are to flourish in passing, the band ceases playing, and resumes the same air or march when the flourishes have ceased.

The guides and the men keep the head well to the front in passing in review.



Form and course of Inspection.

The regiment being in line as prescribed for a review, on an intimation from the Inspector, the Colonel causes the companies to wheel to the right. He then orders the ranks to be opened; at which the standard‑bearers, under the direction of the Adjutant, are posted about 20 paces ahead of the column.

The Colonel seeing the ranks aligned, com­mands: 1. Officers and non‑commissioned officers. 2. To the front of your companies - MARCH, on which the officers form themselves in one rank, 12 paces, and the non‑commissioned officers in one rank, 6 paces in advance, along the whole front of their respective troops, in the order of rank, the highest on the right, and the lowest on the left; the trumpeters of each company, at the same time, take post on the alignment of the front rank, 6 paces from the right; and the farriers in the rear on the alignment of the rear rank.

Seeing the last order in a train of execution, the Colonel commands: 1. Field and staff. 2.To the front ‑ MARCH. The commissioned officers thus designated, form themselves in one rank, 12 paces in front of the standards, in the following order, beginning on the right: Lieutenant‑ Colonel, Major, Adjutant, Quartermaster, Surgeon, and Assistant Surgeon. The non‑commissioned staff in a similar manner, 6 paces in rear of the pre­ceding rank. The band is formed in one rank, 10 paces in rear of the column, the chief musician 4 paces in front of it.

The Colonel now takes post on the right of the Lieutenant‑Colonel; but such of the field officers as may be superior in rank to the Inspector, do not take post as above.

The inspection commences in front. After inspecting the dress and general appearance of the field and commissioned staff, the Inspector, accompanied by these officers, passes down the column, looking at every rank, in front and in rear, with a view to the same objects. He afterwards, in a like manner, passes and inspects the arms; as he successively approaches each company for this purpose, its Captain commands: 1. ­Attention. 2. Inspection – (of) ARMS, which is executed as prescribed No. 405.

The Inspector then dismounts with the field and commissioned staff, for the purpose of inspecting horse furniture, and valises, preparatory to which the Colonel causes the column to dismount. The men being then in the position of stand to horse, the Colonel commands: REST, for the whole column; when the Inspector proceeds to make a minute inspection of the several ranks, in succession, commencing in front.

On approaching the non‑commissioned staff and the band, the Adjutant gives the necessary orders for the inspection of boxes and valises; and in a like manner as to the standard‑bearers. To enable the latter to display their valises, after dismounting, the standards are planted firm in the ground. This division being inspected, the Adjutant may direct the standard‑bearers to link and to disperse, until the standards are to be escorted back to the place from which they were taken. The non‑commissioned staff may be dismissed as soon as inspected.

As the Inspector successively approaches the companies, each Captain commands: 1. Attention. 2. Unstrap valises. 3. Open boxes, when the valises are placed at the feet of the men, with the flaps from them. In this position the Inspector may examine the contents of the whole, boxes and valises, or of as many as he may think necessary, beginning again with the non‑commissioned­ officers, noticing, in passing, the tools, &c., of the farriers, and the trumpets of the musicians.

As the Inspector passes each company, the Captain orders the valises to be repacked and restrapped, and the men to file off to their tents or quarters, except the company which is to escort the standards, which awaits the orders of the Colonel.

In an extensive column, some of the rearmost companies, when dismounted, after the inspection of dress, general appearance, horses and arms, may be permitted to link, awaiting the approach of the Inspector. In this case, such companies resume the position above supposed, before the minute inspection.



ARTICLE THIRD.

DUTIES OF INSTRUCTORS.



The Colonel is responsible for the instruction of the regiment, and he shall not change, under any pretext, the dispositions contained in this book.

He will be present, as often as his other duties permit, at the theoretical and practical instructions, and especially at that of the officers assembled together.

The Lieutenant‑Colonel, and Major, are especially charged with the supervision of the instruction of their respective wings.

Individual instruction being the basis of the instruction of squadrons, on which that of a regiment depends, and the first principles having the greatest influence upon this individual instruction, the classes of recruits should be watched with the greatest care.

The instructors place themselves habitually at such a distance that they can see their whole troop at a glance, and make themselves distinctly heard by it. They leave their place as seldom as possible, and only to make the corrections which are indispensable in the position of the men and the execution of the movements.

They repeat, in a few clear and precise words, the explanations which have not been well understood; and, not to overburden the memory of the men, they always use the same terms to demonstrate the same principles.

They should often join example to precept, should keep up the attention of the men by an animated tone, and pass to another movement as soon as that which they command has been executed in a satisfactory manner. In fine, they should become every day more exacting, in regard to precision and unity.

When at rest, the instructor questions the men, to satisfy himself that their lessons have been well understood. In the theoretical instruction, he requires the commands and explanations to be given as if they were on the ground.



ARTICLE FOURTH.

DIVISION, ORDER, AND PROGRESSION OF INSTRUCTION.



As instruction cannot be established on a solid basis without joining theory to practice, there is in each regiment a theoretical instruction, independent of the exercises in the field.

From the 1st of November to the 1st of May, the Colonel assembles the officers at least twice a week, for the theory of the different parts of their instruction.

The Major and Adjutant assemble, in a like manner, the Sergeants and Corporals.

From the 1st of May to the 1st of November, these theoretical exercises occur once a week for all, and oftener if necessary.

The practical instruction is divided into instruction on foot and instruction mounted.

The instruction on foot, as well as the instruction mounted, includes the school of the trooper, the school of the platoon, and the school of the squadron.

The school of the trooper is divided into four lessons, and each lesson into two parts.

The school of the platoon is divided into four articles.

The school of the squadron is divided into four articles.



Instruction.

Each lesson lasts one hour and a half, without including the rests.

When the weather is bad, the men are exercised in the riding‑house. They are conducted to the riding‑ground whenever the weather will permit.

The horses of the Orderly Sergeants, and Trumpeters, cannot be excused on any pretext from participating in the different classes of instruction.

The horses which have not been trained, are sent out with a snaffle bridle at least three times a week; and, as far as possible, they are all saddled and ridden.

The Colonel causes the squadrons, divisions, and platoons, to be commanded by all the officers in turn, in order to satisfy himself of their instruction, and to instruct those who are not already sufficiently instructed.

During the summer, and until the end of October, the regiment is exercised alternately at the evolutions and in the details of the service in war. For this purpose, whenever it is practicable, the Colonel takes the regiment into the country, in order to accustom it to pass over all kinds of ground and to apply the evolutions to the different localities.

The remount horses are, sent out every day for two hours, saddled, and bridled with a snaffle.

The non‑commissioned officers and privates, who are negligent in the different exercises, either on foot or mounted, are put back into the lower classes.

When the regiment is assembled, the Colonel should direct the superior officers to command occasionally, in the different evolutions, in order to judge of the progress of their instruction. He should also require the other officers to exercise a command superior to that of their grades, when the instruction is sufficiently advanced.
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