Virginia Military Institute During the Civil War
Title: VMI After Hunter's Raid
Source: Virginia Military Institute
More informationThe Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is a state-funded military academy founded in 1839. Located in the Shenandoah Valley town of Lexington, it was only the second governmental military academy in the United States, after the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York (founded in 1802), and represented increased educational opportunity for non-elite southern men. Future Confederate generals Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and John McCausland were VMI instructors during John Brown's raid on the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry in 1859, and they led cadets to his execution in Charles Town, where they helped to provide security. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), approximately 1,800 VMI graduates served (including 19 in the U.S. Army), with about 250 of them killed in action. Cadets famously were called to fight in the Battle of New Market, contributing to the Confederate victory on May 15, 1864. In June, Union general David Hunter ordered the school burned, and the cadets relocated to Richmond, where they helped to defend the Confederate capital.
Before the War
The Virginia Military Institute was founded on November 11, 1839, on the site of a Virginia state arsenal in Lexington, whose citizens had sought the change. (Off-duty soldiers constituted a "very undesirable element," according to one of the town's residents.) Norfolk-native Francis Henney Smith, an 1833 West Point graduate and a professor of mathematics at Hampden-Sydney College, was hired as the school's first superintendent and remained in that position until 1889. Claudius Crozet—a French-born graduate of the École Polytechnique in Paris, an officer who served under Napoléon I during his invasion of Russia (1812), and a professor of engineering at West Point—was president of the Board of Visitors. The inaugural class at VMI numbered twenty-three cadets; until 1860, all cadets were from Virginia. John B. Strange of Fluvanna County became the first cadet sentinel when he relieved the arsenal guard. Strange graduated third in the class of 1842, founded the Albemarle Military Institute sometime between 1854 and 1856, and in 1862 was killed at the Battle of South Mountain during the Maryland Campaign.
In 1851, Thomas J. Jackson became a professor of natural and experimental philosophy (physics) and an instructor of artillery and was widely considered to be a strict, even inflexible teacher. John McCausland graduated first in the VMI class of 1857 and returned to the school as a mathematics instructor in time to assist Jackson in leading eighty-five cadets to Charles Town (in present-day West Virginia) to help maintain order for John Brown's execution on December 2. The secessionist Edmund Ruffin, a month short of his sixty-sixth birthday, stood with the cadets in order to view the execution.
By 1860, the school had graduated 848 cadets, classifying them as either regular (state-supported) or irregular (tuition-paying). Regular cadets were required to teach in Virginia for two years following graduation, while other alumni entered professions such as education, law, medicine, but rarely the military. During the Civil War, twenty-two men who had taught at or attended VMI achieved the rank of general in the Confederate army, nearly three hundred became field officers, and more than five hundred acted as company grade officers. So many served under Jackson that just before his famous flank attack on the Union army at Chancellorsville in 1863, the general said, "The Institute will be heard from today." At Pickett's Charge during the Battle of Gettysburg (1863), for example, thirteen of the fifteen regimental commanders in the Confederate division commanded by George E. Pickett had either taught at or attended VMI.
Within a week of the Virginia Convention's approving an ordinance of secession on April 17, 1861, and under Jackson's command, cadets entered Confederate service. They transferred to Camp Lee in Richmond, where they helped to train recruits in preparation for the First Battle of Manassas (1861). The forty-seven younger cadets who reluctantly remained in Lexington to protect the state armory and property were rejoined by the rest of the Cadet Corps in January 1862. Throughout the war, 614 young men between the ages of fifteen and twenty-one served as drillmasters and generally avoided active military service. Although the administration successfully kept VMI cadets exempt from conscription, older cadets often left school to enlist and graduations were accelerated. Cadets drilled and trained as many as fifty thousand Confederate soldiers.
The VMI Cadet Corps marched off post three times during the war, but only once entered into battle, on May 15, 1864. Confederate forces under John C. Breckinridge—a Mexican War veteran, former U.S. vice president under James Buchanan, and a Democratic Party candidate for president in 1860—raced to meet a threat in the Shenandoah Valley from Union general Franz Sigel. The cadets were called to march eighty miles in four days to meet Breckinridge in New Market, southeast of Harpers Ferry. There, Breckinridge told them, "Gentlemen from VMI, I trust I will not need your services today; but if I do I know you will do your duty!" Privately, Breckinridge worried. "They are only children," he told an aide, "and I cannot expose them to such fire."
When a gap opened up in the center of his line, however, the Confederate general was forced to send in the approximately 250 cadets, commanded by Captain Scott Shipp. "May God forgive me," he said, as the cadets joined a Confederate charge. "About this time we passed a group of wounded soldiers who cheered us but a shell, intended for us, burst in their midst, and they fell silent," cadet Gideon Davenport later recalled. "Suddenly there was a crack in our front[,] a gap appeared in our ranks[,] and First Sergeant Cabell, Privates Wheelwright Crockett and Jones fell dead, and others were wounded … the line went forward in the best of order."
The Union line broke, and the Cadet Corps suffered forty-seven wounded and ten killed, including Thomas Garland Jefferson, a relation of Thomas Jefferson. (Future U.S. senator Thomas Staples Martin was a VMI cadet at this time but missed the battle because of sickness.) Two-thirds of the cadets at New Market were recent VMI appointees, with an average age of eighteen; the Cadet Corps suffered the second-highest casualty rate in the battle.
Sigel was relieved of command four days later, but his was just one of two Union forces operating in the Valley. The other, under Union general David Hunter, occupied Lexington the following month. Because VMI was regarded as a legal military target since it was home to a state arsenal and a military educational institute, on June 12, Hunter ordered the Virginia Military Institute burned. The barracks, mess hall, two faculty residences, and the library—all but two buildings on campus—were destroyed. By then the cadets had already joined Confederate forces under Jubal A. Early near Lynchburg, where they helped repulse Hunter a few days later. The cadets then transferred to Richmond, where they spent the rest of the war. On July 30, former VMI professor John McCausland, under Early's orders, burned the town of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in part to retaliate against Union actions in the Valley, including the torching of VMI.
VMI reopened in Lexington in October 1865, with Francis H. Smith still serving as superintendent and two prominent Confederate navy officers—Matthew Fontaine Maury and John Mercer Brooke (the latter of whom helped to convert the USS Merrimack into the CSS Virginia)—joining the faculty. Scott Shipp, who led cadets at New Market, became the school's second superintendent in 1890. VMI served as a model for other institutions in the South, including Louisiana State University and Texas A&M, and was the alma mater of U.S. general George C. Marshall (class of 1901), who served as chief of staff of the United States Army during World War II (1939–1945), as well as U.S. secretary of state and secretary of defense in the administration of U.S. president Harry S. Truman. In 1997, following the U.S. Supreme Court decision in United States v. Virginia, VMI became the last state-supported American military college to admit women.
November 11, 1839- The Virginia Military Institute in Lexington is founded on the site of a Virginia state arsenal.
1851- Thomas J. Jackson is hired by the Virginia Military Institute as a professor of natural and experimental philosophy (physics) and an instructor of artillery.
1857- John A. McCausland graduates first in his class from the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington.
1859- After a year at the University of Virginia, John A. McCausland returns to the Virginia Military Institute as an assistant professor in mathematics.
December 2, 1859- Eighty-five Virginia Military Institute cadets, under the leadership of Thomas J. Jackson and John McCausland, attend the execution of John Brown in Charles Town, Virginia (now West Virginia).
April–December 1861- Virginia Military Institute cadets drill Confederate soldiers at Camp Lee in Richmond.
May 1862- The Virginia Military Institute Cadet Corps is called into active service and marches against forces under Union major general Irvin McDowell. The cadets face no fire, however.
May 1863- The Virginia Military Institute Cadet Corps escorts the body of Confederate general and former professor Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson to Lexington Cemetery after his death following the Battle of Chancellorsville.
August–December 1863- The Virginia Military Institute Cadet Corps is called into active service for the second time during the Civil War, this time against Union general William Averell but again sees no fire. A detachment is ordered to capture deserters in the Shenandoah Valley.
May 15, 1864- Approximately 250 Virginia Military Institute cadets participate in the Battle of New Market. Forty-seven are wounded and ten killed in the Confederate victory.
June 12, 1864- At Lexington in the Shenandoah Valley, Union general David Hunter orders the burning of the Virginia Military Institute, former governor John Letcher's house, and parts of Washington College.
October 1865- The Virginia Military Institute reopens in Lexington with Francis Henney Smith continuing on as superintendent.
1890- Scott Shipp, who led Virginia Military Institute cadets at the Battle of New Market in 1864, becomes the school's second superintendent.
June 26, 1996- The U.S. Supreme Court rules against the Virginia Military Institute in United States v. Virginia, and the school admits women the following year.
Beller, Susan Provost. Cadets at War: The True Story of Teenage Heroism at the Battle of New Market. Crozet, Va.: Shoe Tree Press, 1991.
Gindlesperger, James. Seed Corn of the Confederacy: The Story of the Cadets of the Virginia Military Institute at the Battle of New Market. Shippensburg, Pa.: Burd Street Press, 1997.
Lee, James Conrad. Young Lions: Confederates at War. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1997.
McMurry, Richard M. Virginia Military Institute Alumni in the Civil War: In Bello Praesidium. Lynchburg, VA: H. E. Howard, 1999.
Contributed by Jennifer R. Green, an associate professor of history at Central Michigan University. She is author of Military Education and the Emerging Middle Class in the Old South (2008), "From West Point to the Virginia Military Institute: The Educational Life of Stonewall Jackson" in Virginia Cavalcade (Summer 2000), and editor (with Jonathan Daniel Wells) of The Southern Middle Class in the Nineteenth Century (forthcoming).
Green, J. R. (2011, April 11). Virginia Military Institute During the Civil War. Retrieved January 24, 2012, from Encyclopedia Virginia: http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/Virginia_Military_Institute_During_the_Civil_War.
Green, Jennifer R. "Virginia Military Institute During the Civil War." Encyclopedia Virginia. Ed. Brendan Wolfe. 24 Jan. 2012. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. 11 Apr. 2011 <http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/Virginia_Military_Institute_During_the_Civil_War>.
First published: September 24, 2009 | Last modified: April 11, 2011
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